Since this intricate system permits the fetus to obtain oxygenated blood and nutrients from the placenta, I’m sometimes curious about how the circulatory system works for fetal compared to adult. I know it’s made up of the placental blood vessels and the umbilical cord, which has two umbilical arteries and one umbilical vein. However, I discovered in this book that there are significant individual differences and that the pattern changes with gestational age. The normalized umbilical blood flow decreases with gestational age, and a new stage of development appears to be attained at 28 to 32 weeks. Increased ductus venosus and foramen ovale shunting, increased impedance in the lungs, reduced impedance in the brain, increasingly reversed flow in the aortic isthmus, and more prominent coronary blood flow are all responses seen in the human fetus in response to increased afterload, hypoxaemia, and acidaemia.
There are trillions of cells in the human body. They support the body’s structure, absorb nutrients from meals, transform those nutrients to energy, and perform specialized functions. Cells also contain the body’s genetic material and have the ability to replicate themselves.
By living a healthy lifestyle, you can help keep your blood pressure in a healthy range. Preventing high blood pressure, which is also called hypertension, can lower your risk for heart disease and stroke. Practice the following healthy living habits:
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