Get a professor

What is the largest cell in the human body?

Written by Alexis Marian Balisbis

There are 100 trillion cells or more in the human body. These make up tissues, tissues make up organs, and organs make up the organ system. The various functions performed by cells lead to their different shapes and sizes. The female ovum or egg cell is the largest cell in the human body.

Its size is about 120 micrometers (0.0047 in) in diameter and 20 times the size of male sperm, making it visible to the naked eye without the aid of a magnification device. The female ovum is the reproductive cell in the female body. It needs to gather enough nutrients to support a growing embryo after fertilization.

There are approximately 1 million eggs at birth. Moreover, by the time of puberty or menstruation, only 300,000 eggs remain. Usually, females ovulate one egg per month.

What is the smallest cell in the human body?

A cell is the smallest, basic unit of life that controls all the processes of life. Most scientists suggest that the smallest cell in the human body for volume is the male sperm. The reproductive cell of males is the sperm.

A bit smaller than your red blood cell, the sperm head is about 4 micrometers in length and a tail 50 micrometers long. A fertile man may produce between 40 million and 1800 million sperms in total. It will only survive in warm environments; thus, it dies outside the body or when ejaculated.

Which blood cell is smallest in size?

A blood cell is also known as a hematopoietic cell, hemocyte, or hematocyte. The three main types of hemocytes include red blood cell or erythrocyte, white blood cell or leukocyte, and platelet or thrombocyte. The smallest hemocyte in size is the platelets or thrombocytes.

Platelets are minute discs 1 to 4 micrometers in diameter, only about 20% of the diameter of erythrocytes. 150,000 – 350,000 per microliter of blood is the average platelet count. But, they are miniature, so they make up a tiny fraction of the volume. They play a significant role in the repair and regeneration of connective tissue.

  • Production:

The production or formation of platelets occurs in the bone marrow from megakaryocytes or the “giant” cell, which are giant hematopoietic cells in the marrow. The thrombopoietin or TPO, a dominant hormone controlling megakaryocyte development, regulates the production.

Megakaryocyte develops into a giant cell that releases over 1,000 platelets per megakaryocyte due to fragmentation. They break up into the minute platelets either in the bone marrow or soon after entering the blood, especially as they squeeze through capillaries.

  • Structure:

Platelets are the smallest of the circulating fragments of cells, so they are not actual cells. Their average lifespan is about 5 to 9 days only. The shape of platelets, usually plate-like, may change when a break in the blood vessel stimulates them.

When there is a break in the vessel, they become round and extend long filaments. They look like octopuses with long tentacles reaching out to contact the broken vessel wall or other platelets. Then, platelets form a plug to seal the damaged vessel with the long filaments.

Platelets also contain many structures that are necessary to stop bleeding, such as proteins and granules. Proteins on the surface allow them to stick to breaks in the vessel wall and each other. Like muscle protein, they also allow them to change shape when sticky. Granules secrete other proteins that create a firm plug to seal vessel breaks.

  • Function:

Platelets are being pushed out from the center of flowing red fluid to the vessel wall because they are the lightest. They pass along the surface of the vessel lined by cells called the endothelium. Endothelium prevents anything from sticking to it.

The platelets react first to injury. When there is a wound or bruise and a broken endothelial layer, this causes exposure of the tough fibers surrounding a vessel to the liquid flowing blood. The tough fibers attract platelets like a magnet, which stimulates the shape change. They clump onto the fibers, forming blood clots or the initial seal to prevent bleeding.

  • Disorders: (You can explore more conditions but the ones mentioned are some of them)

Thrombocytopenia, a term derived from an old name for platelets, “thrombocytes,” is a disorder with low platelet counts. The cause can be due to the failure of the bone marrow to produce the standard number of platelets. Increased platelet destruction may also happen once production finishes and when releasing it into the circulation.

Thrombocythemia is a disorder in which your bone marrow makes too many platelets. Some symptoms may include bleeding, headache, bruises, and bloody stools.

Which blood cell is known as a scavenger?

White blood cells or leukocytes are the fewest of the hemocytes. There are only 5,000 to 10,000 leukocytes per microliter or about 1% of your blood. The several types of leukocytes all connect to immunity and fighting infection. The hemocyte called macrophages, also known as natural scavengers, is a type of leukocyte.

Macrophages, also called granulocytes, are cells in the immune system that belong to the so-called scavenger cells or the phagocyte family. They live in almost all body tissues, such as the liver, brain, small intestine, and skin. They destroy bacteria, stimulate other immune system cells’ action, and remove dead cells.

They are also made in the bone marrow and protect the body against infection. Granulocytes have granules in their cytoplasm. The three classes or subdivisions of Macrophages are:

  • Neutrophil

Neutrophils are the most common type and the most many, making up about 50% to 70% of all leukocytes and have a lifespan of 7 hours. The granules are very tiny and light, so they are challenging to see. They are the first line of protection when infection strikes to kill and digest bacteria and fungi.

  • Eosinophil

These are less common, making up less than 5% of leukocytes and a lifespan of 8 to 12 days. They damage the cells that make up the cuticle or body wall of larger parasites and cancer cells. The large granules contain digestive enzymes that are effective against parasitic worms in their larval form.

  • Basophil

Basophils are the least many and rarely seen, making up less than 1% of all leukocytes and a lifespan of a few hours to a few days. They release heparin which is a substance that inhibits blood clotting, histamine, and other substances that have essential roles in some allergic reactions to help control the immune response or the inflammatory response.

What is the largest blood cell?

The other type of white blood cell is the Agranulocytes that have no distinct granules in their cytoplasm. Examples are lymphocytes and monocytes. The largest blood cell is the monocyte, a leukocyte averaging 15 to 18 micrometers in diameter and making up about 7% of the leukocytes.

In the cytoplasm, large numbers of granules often appear to be more in number near the plasma membrane. The nucleus is big, kidney bean-shaped, and tends to have indenting or folding. Monocytes enter areas of inflamed tissue later than the granulocytes or macrophages.

 Monocytes are capable of motion and are phagocytic (engulfing) cells. They can ingest infectious agents and other large particles. They may help break down bacteria, but they cannot replace the function of neutrophils in the removal and destruction of bacteria.

Production in the bone marrow takes place, then they leave and circulate in the blood. After a few hours, the monocytes enter the tissues, where they develop or mature into macrophages. They have a life span of 3 days which is longer than the life span of many white blood cells.

The other type of agranular leukocyte is the lymphocytes, a part of the immune response to foreign substances in the body. They make up about 28% – 42% of the white cells of the blood. These are much smaller than the three granulocytes. The nucleus is enormous for the size of the cell.

Many lymphocytes are in the spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus, and lymphoid tissue of the gastrointestinal tract. The T-lymphocytes act against tumor cells and virus-infected cells, while the B-lymphocytes produce antibodies against possible harmful invaders. Both of these are memory cells that may live for many years.

What blood cells carry oxygen?

Blood is the life-sustaining fluid that circulates through the entire body. It also carries nutrients to the body tissues. The life-sustaining cells that transport oxygen all over the body are the red blood cells or erythrocytes. These are the most many, about 5,000,000 per microliter, making about 40% of your total blood volume.

  • Production:

The hormone erythropoietin or EPO manages the production of erythrocytes, which occurs in the bone marrow. With small amounts made by the liver, the kidneys are the leading site for EPO production in response to decreased oxygen delivery, such as anemia and hypoxia or increased levels of androgen hormones.

  • Structure:

Disks that are a bit flattened with an indented center or round, biconcave discs are usually the shape of erythrocytes. The microscopic view looks like an orange or red tire with a thin, almost transparent center. They live for about 120 days or four months. Your body makes new erythrocytes to replace the dead or lost ones.

  • Function:

The hemoglobin in erythrocytes is a protein that carries oxygen. When hemoglobin picks up oxygen in your lungs, the life-sustaining fluid gets its bright red color. The hemoglobin releases oxygen to the different parts of the body as it travels. Erythrocytes also bring carbon dioxide to the lungs for you to exhale, removing it from your body.

  • Illness: (Mentioned below is only one condition, but you can search other types of anemia)

Some causes of these illnesses are diseases, a lack of iron or vitamins in your diet, or inherited from family.

Anemia is a disease in which too few erythrocytes carry enough oxygen all over the body. Pale skin, feeling cold, tiredness, and fast heart rate are some symptoms of anemia. In severe cases, it may cause heart failure. Children with anemia develop slower than other children.

There are many types of anemia, including the most common, iron deficiency anemia. Your body would not make enough hemocytes if you did not have enough iron in your body. Causes may include sudden blood loss, inability to absorb enough iron from food, a low-iron diet, and ongoing chronic fluid loss such as from heavy menstrual periods.

What vitamin helps the body make red blood cells?

The body needs enough erythrocytes to provide oxygen to body tissues. Foods rich in iron and vitamins can aid in maintaining healthy erythrocytes. The vitamin that helps the body erythrocytes is Vitamin B12.

You can get vitamin B12 from eating meat, cheese, eggs, milk, and cereal – usually absorbed by your digestive systems, such as the stomach and intestines.  Supplements containing B12 along with other B vitamins or folate are also available.

Some factors that make it difficult for your soma to absorb enough vitamin B12 include:

  • Poor nutrition during pregnancy
  • Poor diet in infants
  • Eating a strict vegetarian diet
  • Alcohol use
  • Surgery that removes particular parts of the stomach or small intestine, such as some weight-loss surgeries
  • Pernicious anemia happens when the body destroys cells that make intrinsic factor, a protein produced by specialized cells that line the stomach wall.

References:

Extend Fertility. (2017, November 20). Five fascinating egg cell facts. Retrieved from https://extendfertility.com/egg-cell-facts/

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (2021, March 6). Study reveals how egg cells get so big.Retrieved from https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/03/210306113142.htm

Byju’s. (n.d.). Name the smallest and largest cell in the body? Retrieved from

https://byjus.com/questions/name-the-smallest-and-largest-cell-in-the-human-body/

Vedantu. (n.d.). Questions & answers. Retrieved from

https://www.vedantu.com/question-answer/smallest-blood-cells-are-arbc-bwbc-cplatelets-class-11-biology-cbse-5f7c1286de7d79546eff0c98

George, J. (2015). Platelets on the web. Retrieved from

https://www.ouhsc.edu/platelets/platelets/platelets%20intro.html

Humphrey, J. & Perdue, S. (2020). Immune system: Macrophages. Retrieved from

https://www.britannica.com/science/immune-system/Interferons

University of Rochester Medical Center. (n.d.). What are white blood cells? Retrieved from

https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?ContentID=35&ContentTypeID=160

Conley, L. & Schwartz, R. (2020). Blood: Monocytes. Retrieved from

https://www.britannica.com/science/blood-biochemistry/White-blood-cells-leukocytes#ref62367

Wick, S. (n.d.). Immunology. Retrieved from

https://www2.nau.edu/~fpm/immunology/blood.html

University of Rochester Medical Center. (n.d.). What are red blood cells? Retrieved from

https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?ContentID=34&ContentTypeID=160

The American National Red Cross. (n.d.). Red blood cells and why they are important. Retrieved

from https://www.redcrossblood.org/donate-blood/dlp/red-blood-cells.html#:~:text=Red%20blood%20cells%20carry%20oxygen,our%20lungs%20to%20be%20exhaled.

KidsHealth. (2019). What’s blood? Retrieved from https://kidshealth.org/en/kids/blood.html

MedlinePlus. (2021). Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia. Retrieved from

https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000574.htm

Healthwise. (2020, September 23). Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia. Retrieved from

https://www.uofmhealth.org/health-library/hw65706

What is hypertension?

Written by Ian Jay B. Francisco

Did you know that the world’s leading cause of death is preventable? Hypertensive heart disease causes more deaths than any other illness. It begins as elevated blood pressure—hypertension (HTN).

The heart is a powerful pump the size of a fist. It circulates approximately five liters of life fluid every minute. The exerted force against your arteries is your blood pressure (BP).

Your blood pressure varies with the different activities you do. When you are relaxing, it is lower. In contrast, it increases when you do strenuous activities.

You can gauge it using millimeters of mercury (mmHg) as a unit. A healthcare worker uses a sphygmomanometer to measure the force inside your arteries.

You may wonder what blood pressure numbers, systolic and diastolic, imply. Systolic pressure measures the pressure within your arteries when your heart is beating. Diastolic pressure measures the stress in your arteries when your heart is resting.

BP depends on the amount of blood in your body and the resistance it encounters in your vascular system. If your blood volume is high and your arteries are narrow, you may have hypertension. These are the BP ranges:

Normal. You have normal BP when the reading is < 120/80 mmHg.

Elevated. You have elevated BP when the measurement is 120-129/< 80 mmHg.

Stage 1 high BP. If it reads 130-139/80-89 mmHg, you are in the first hypertension stage.

Stage 2 high BP. You are at this stage if it is ≥ 140/≥ 90 mmHg.

Hypertension crisis. You need to seek professional help right away when it reads > 180/> 120 mmHg. Keep in mind that doctors did not set hypertensive values in stone. Healthcare professionals diagnose HTN when the reading exceeds or equals 140/90 mmHg. Others identify HTN when it is 130/80 mmHg or higher.

HTN is not one disease but a syndrome with many causes. It causes ischemic heart disease, the leading cause of death globally. Because HTN has no warning signs or symptoms, people call it the “silent killer.”

What is the main cause of hypertension?

Now that you know the definition of this so-called silent killer, you may wonder what causes it. Experts say that the exact cause of HTN is unknown yet. But increased peripheral vascular resistance causes it.

Hypertension takes years to develop. The factors that influence the likelihood of HTN are controllable and genetic. Thus, anyone is at risk, including you.

There are two types of high HP:

  1. Primary HTN. Also called essential HTN, it is the most common type and has no known cause.
  2. Secondary HTN. It is when an underlying health condition causes it.

Unhealthy lifestyle decisions can cause HTN. You are at risk of getting sick if you don’t get enough sleep, physical activity, or nutrition.

Certain medical conditions may also cause your BP to rise. Pregnancy can elevate a mother’s heart rate.

Other risk factors include:

  • Smoking. Tobacco’s toxins can damage the lining of your artery walls.
  • Obesity. Overweight people’s cardiovascular systems work more to deliver oxygen and nutrition.
  • Inactivity. Having a sedentary lifestyle increases your heart rate.
  • Too much salt. Sodium induces fluid retention and elevates BP.
  • Too little potassium. It helps regulate sodium in your cells.
  • Too much alcohol. Alcoholic beverages can harm your heart.
  • Stress. It can elevate your BP for a short time.
  • Age. Hypertension likelihood increases with aging.
  • Race. HTN is common among African people.
  • Family history. HTN runs in families.
  • Other chronic conditions. Kidney disease, diabetes, and apnea increase your risk of hypertension.

Although some of these factors are inevitable, you can still prevent HTN. What matters is that you can avoid the disease by making better lifestyle choices.

What can happen if you have hypertension?

The medical community says that blood is the lifeline of the body. Thus, any illness affecting it and the cardiovascular system will affect the human as a whole. Hypertension can lead to a lot of other complications.

What’s scary about HTN is that little to no symptoms manifest even if BP gets high. There is hardly any early warning sign that you have HTN unless its effects on your body begin to appear. That is why you need to have your BP checked always.

HTN can hurt your general well-being. It can damage your eyes, brain, heart, kidneys, and other organs and organ systems.

Circulatory System

When BP increases, artery walls become damaged. As a consequence, cholesterol accumulates in the tears of the artery walls. Thus, the fluid passage becomes restricted.

The deficiency in oxygen and nutrients carried in blood results in organ damage. It manifests as angina (chest pain). It could also cause arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat) or myocardial infarction (heart attack).

Due to HTN, the heart becomes an inefficient pump. It may cause difficulty in breathing, swelling in the extremities, or fatigue. It can also cause an artery wall to balloon out, forming an aneurysm. A ruptured aneurysm is lethal.

Nervous System

Reduced blood flow to the central nervous system may cause cognitive problems. You may experience difficulty in remembering, thinking, or understanding things. Thus, you can associate HTN with dementia.

When brain arteries get blocked, a stroke (cerebrovascular accident) occurs. When neurons cannot get oxygen, they begin to die off.

Hypertension can also affect eyesight. You may suffer from blurry vision and blindness due to the damaged capillaries in your eyes.

Skeletal System

HTN causes your body to excrete more calcium via urination. If you are a woman who has undergone menopause, you are at risk of osteoporosis (bone loss). Your bones become frail and susceptible to fractures.

Respiratory System

The lungs can also get damaged from HTN. A pulmonary embolism can occur when the arteries in your lungs get blocked. Researchers also linked sleep apnea (loud snoring and breathing problems) to hypertension.

Reproductive System

Hypertension can cause sexual dysfunction. When the penis receives insufficient blood, men will have difficulty maintaining an erection. Blocked vessels can also cause vaginal dryness in women.

Urinary System

Like any other organ afflicted by a deficiency in blood supply, the kidneys can also get damaged. They lose the ability to filter out waste from the body. When you have kidney failure, you need to undergo dialysis or a kidney transplant.

Can hypertension be cured?

The fourth industrial revolution enabled the field of medicine to improve health conditions. You may have expected that chronic illnesses now have a cure. Unfortunately, hypertension has no cure, but you can manage it with medication.

Now that you know the risk factors for hypertension, you can do these to lower your BP with natural means:

  • Exercise. It is crucial for your health and can help lower BP.
  • Improve your diet. Experts recommend a diet rich in fresh produce and whole grains.
  • Maintain a healthy weight. Maintaining your weight reduces the strain on your heart.
  • Limit your sodium intake. Look for low or no salt foods to lower intake.
  • Avoid stress. You can reduce stress by meditating, engaging in a relaxing activity, or exercising.
  • Drink with caution. Limit your alcohol consumption.
  • Quit smoking. Benefits include better lung health and a lower risk of heart disease.

Lifestyle changes can help lower your BP and cut the risk of heart disease. Your doctor may also prescribe BP medication. These are antihypertensive drugs. Antihypertensive oral medicines include:

  • ACE inhibitors
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers
  • Calcium channel blockers
  • Diuretics
  • Beta-blockers
  • Alpha-blockers
  • Centrally-acting antihypertensive drugs
  • Vasodilators

The goal of treatment is to normalize your BP. Your doctor may prescribe a medication with few or no adverse effects. This treatment works well.

If medication can only regulate your BP, you’ll need to take it forever. It’s usual to need many medications to control BP. Take the drug as prescribed. Otherwise, you’ll risk a stroke or heart attack.

What food causes hypertension?

Your lifestyle plays a very vital role in curbing hypertension. It includes the food and beverages you consume. You need to avoid food that is high in salt, sugar, and trans-fat.

Table salt. When you’re suffering from HTN, you should limit or drop salt in your diet. Try using new culinary spices and plants.

Some sauces and condiments. Sodium-rich foods include ketchup, soy sauce, salad dressing, barbecue sauce, and steak sauce.

Saturated and trans fats. Fried foods and meats high in fat are unhealthy for blood pressure and cholesterol. Limit or avoid red meat. If you drink a lot of dairy products, go for low-fat.

Fried food. You can bake or sauté instead of frying. Air fryers are an excellent alternative.

Fast food. Processed food cooked in high-fat oils is what they serve at fast-food restaurants. They also have a lot of salt.

Processed food. Manufacturers salt them to keep their flavor during canning, packing, or freezing.

Cured meats. When manufacturers preserve, cure, or salt lunch meats, they increase their sodium content.

Salted snacks. Many crackers, chips, and even cookies are bad choices.

Caffeine. You should avoid caffeine if you have HTN. If you like coffee, try the decaffeinated one if you can’t give it up.

Alcohol. A small amount of alcohol can lower your blood pressure, but too much can raise it.

Soda. It is high in sugar and empty calories.

What is the best drink for hypertension?

Therapies for HTN are not curative. You have to continue them forever to manage the disease. If you have HTN, you can add healthy drinks to your diet to help manage your BP.

There is no available source on the internet that singles out any drink as the best. If you want to manage your HTN, you might want to try these drinks:

  • Apple cider vinegar. It flushes the body of salt and poisons. The rennin enzyme lowers blood pressure.
  • Lemon water. Lemon water is a cell cleanser. It also softens arteries, reducing the pressure within them.
  • Methi water. The fiber in methi or fenugreek water helps lower the pressure.
  • Chia seeds infused water. Chia seeds have a lot of omega-3 fatty acids. They help thin the blood and reduce its pressure.
  • Tomato juice. Japanese researchers reported in 2019 that it could improve systolic and diastolic pressure.
  • Beet juice. A study from 2016 found out that raw beet juice lowered BP.
  • Prune juice. Researchers reported that people who eat prunes daily had reduced BP.
  • Pomegranate juice. People who drank pomegranate juice had lower systolic and diastolic pressure.
  • Berry juice. A literature review in 2020 said that cranberry or cherry juice might help lower BP.
  • Skim milk. Experts concluded that drinking low-fat milk yields a lower risk of hypertension.
  • Tea. Green tea was effective in reducing blood pressure in a 2014 study.

All in all, the best all-natural beverage you can take is still water. Keeping yourself hydrated daily by drinking six to eight glasses helps regulate BP. If you drink it in moderation, you are on the right track.

Does coffee lower blood pressure?

There is an ongoing debate on how caffeine affects blood pressure. Previous studies show conflicting results about this subject. But coffee has shown properties that both elevate and lower blood pressure.

Caffeine can elevate your blood pressure, even if you don’t have hypertension. This sudden rise in blood pressure is unknown. Caffeine’s effect on blood pressure varies by individual.

Caffeine may inhibit a hormone that widens arteries. Other researchers believe caffeine stimulates the adrenal glands, raising blood pressure.

Also, avoid caffeine before activities that raise your blood pressure. Examples of such are exercising, weightlifting, or intense physical labor.

Greek researchers in 2010 claim otherwise. They said that coffee improves the elasticity of blood vessels. The vascular systems of those who drank one to two cups of coffee were better than those who drank less or more.

More researchers need to look into these findings to confirm these. But you can be sure that drinking coffee in moderation will not harm you.

References

7 Ways To Lower Blood Pressure Without Drugs | Florida Medical Clinic. (2018, August 30). Florida Medical Clinic; Florida Medical Clinic. https://www.floridamedicalclinic.com/blog/lowering-blood-pressure-without-medication/

11 Foods that Increase Blood Pressure – Durham Nephrology Associates, PA. (2019, November 14). Durham Nephrology Associates, PA. https://www.durhamnephrology.com/foods-that-increase-blood-pressure/

Beckerman, J. (2021, August 6). Causes of High Blood Pressure. WebMD; WebMD. https://www.webmd.com/hypertension-high-blood-pressure/guide/blood-pressure-causes

Beckerman, J. (2021, February 5). High Blood Pressure and Hypertensive Heart Disease. WebMD; WebMD. https://www.webmd.com/hypertension-high-blood-pressure/guide/hypertensive-heart- disease#:~:text=Hypertensive%20heart%20disease%20is%20the,thickening%20of%20the%20heart%20mu scle).

CDC. (2021, May 18). High Blood Pressure Symptoms and Causes. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/bloodpressure/about.htm#:~:text=High%20blood%20pressure%2C%20also%20calle d,blood%20pressure%20(or%20hypertension).

Centre for Health Protection, Department of Health – Hypertension – the Preventable and Treatable Silent Killer. (2013). Chp.gov.hk. https://www.chp.gov.hk/en/features/28272.html#:~:text=Hypertension%20is%20a%20chronic%20diseas e,follow%20up%2C%20usually%20for%20life.

Goldman, R. (2018, January 22). The Effects of Hypertension on the Body. Healthline; Healthline Media. https://www.healthline.com/health/high-blood-pressure-hypertension/effect-on-body

High blood pressure (hypertension) – Symptoms and causes. (2021). Mayo Clinic; https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/high-blood-pressure/symptoms-causes/syc-20373410

Laino, C. (2010, September). Coffee May Combat High Blood Pressure. WebMD; WebMD. https://www.webmd.com/hypertension-high-blood-pressure/news/20100901/coffee-may-combat-high- blood-pressure

Lopez-Jimenez, F. (2021, June 8). How does caffeine affect blood pressure? Mayo Clinic; https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/high-blood-pressure/expert-answers/blood- pressure/faq

McPhee, S. J., Hammer, G. D., & Mitrovic, I. (2019). Cardiovascular Disorders: Vascular Disease. In Pathophysiology of disease: An introduction to clinical medicine (8th ed., pp. 778–788). essay, McGraw-Hill Education Medical.

NOVA Online | Cut to the Heart | Map of the Human Heart | Amazing Heart Facts. (2021). Pbs.org. https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/heart/heartfacts.html#:~:text=Your%20body%20has%20about%205.6, US%20from%20coast%20to%20coast.

Vandergriendt, C. (2020, September 17). 7 Drinks for Lowering Blood Pressure. Healthline; Healthline Media. https://www.healthline.com/health/drinks-to-lower-blood-pressure#beet-juice

Why High Blood Pressure is a “Silent Killer.” (2017). http://Www.heart.org. https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/high- blood-pressure/why-high-blood-pressure-is-a-silent-killer

World Health Organization: WHO. (2020, December 9). The top 10 causes of death. Who.int; World Health Organization: WHO. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/the-top-10-causes-of-death

World Health Organization: WHO. (2021, August 25). Hypertension. Who.int; World Health Organization: WHO.https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hypertension

Words of Wisdom for Learners

Words of wisdom for learners and mentors. “'For I know the plans I have for you,' declares the Lord, 'plans to prosper you and not to harm you, plans to give you a hope and a future. '” — Jeremiah 29:11. Jeremiah 29:11 is one of the most often-quoted verses in the Bible.
from InkSights n Letters

Words of Wisdom for Learners and Mentors

Words of Wisdom for learners and mentors. May these words of my mouth and this meditation of my heart be pleasing in your sight, Lord, my Rock and my Redeemer.
from InkSights n Letters

What is laboratory management and organization?

Written by Ian Jay B. Francisco

The clinical laboratory is a melting pot of diverse people. As the head of the lab, how will you guide your personnel despite the setbacks? Organizing your resources and staffing will help you deliver quality medical services.

Test results have to be accurate and reliable. Approximately 70% of medical-related decisions rely on these results. Moreover, labs in the United States perform 7-10 billion tests every year.

Any occurrence of inaccurate results leads to significant consequences. Your erroneous test results may increase your patient’s expenses. Unnecessary procedures and complications because of wrong medication are some of these consequences.

The successful delivery of service relies on managerial practices. The workplace environment depends on how you supervise and direct workflow. Communication must also exist within the institution.

Laboratory management aims to provide adequate health services. It involves the integration and coordination of various organizational resources like human resources.

It aims to lead the laboratory staff to carry out their tasks within limited time and supplies. It includes supervising daily operations and training new personnel. It also involves refilling consumables and keeping records of activities.

There are four different types of management:

Planning. A manager can plan to see the lab’s trajectory.

Organizing. As a manager, you select who works on which project and technique. You also supervise the timetables and budgets for various projects. Thus, you must stay up to date with research.

Leading. A manager’s ability to lead is crucial. You determine the lab’s environment and pace. Good leadership may motivate members to be more productive and creative.

Controlling. Being a manager involves assessing the progress of members and projects. You must have the ability to address issues as they arise.

In an alternative sense, lab organization encompasses the physical establishment and operation. The areas may overlap when the facility is small. People that strive to achieve a common goal comprise organizations. These societal units need management to achieve their respective goals.

Generally, a laboratory is like a vehicle. It needs someone to maneuver the institution towards success. It should have a strategy with clear objectives and methods for achieving them. There should be a manager who instructs and ensures the quality of all activities.

What is the importance of laboratory management?

Why is laboratory management critical? How does it influence your laboratory’s trajectory? Lab management may improve service efficiency.

Diagnoses generally depend on laboratory results. The laboratory-diagnostic management process maintains quality while lowering costs. Thus, a lab needs management to function.

The lab must use the most appropriate test methods and equipment for patient care. Management is the process of organizing human and physical resources into functional units. As head, you must achieve your goals while keeping your staff’s morale high.

You have to take note that you have to follow international standards. To ensure the best operation, you need to install quality management systems. Your laboratory accreditation will also help you show competence.

You need to analyze data about your operations and identify ways to improve them. Heads review and audit to track the operation of a laboratory. Yet, not all laboratories have the resources to create these tools.

Cooperation with your healthcare customers is an essential aspect of laboratory operation. This collaboration requires better management to cater to customer feedback. Laboratories check potential nonconformities in their operations and, if necessary, take corrective action.

Competency is the foundation of a high-quality laboratory operation. You should train and educate your employees. Greater emphasis on training planning and effectiveness should be the priority of heads.

Yet, a training plan might not cover all employees. There is still a need for better validation planning, even if you use validated methods.

Laboratories provide all necessary information to healthcare units to guide patients. But one major issue is that patients do not follow these instructions. The need for more collaboration to combat miscommunication is evident.

Healthcare units expect a lot from labs. Such expectations include expert consultation and state-of-the- art examination methods. You can always help your personnel provide quality medical service.

What are the principles of laboratory management?

A curriculum in clinical lab management represents the essence of management. What are its core principles? Lab management involves leadership, behavior, environment, planning, structure, values, communication, and innovation.

Leadership. It’s important to distinguish between management and leadership. Leadership implies influence by example and motivation. It stands alone as a fundamental principle.

Management implies direction by authority and control. It means guidance by power and control, and it is an element of the code of structure.

You can learn and hone the necessary characteristics, skills, and responsibilities for leading. In other words, you do not need to be a “natural leader.” There must also be a distinction between situational (reactive) and anticipative (proactive) leadership.

Behavior. The behavioral principle combines the psychological makeup of individuals and organizations. Considering Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, understanding organizational behavior begins with individual psychology. It is because the organization and its members have similar conditions to succeed.

Environment. It refers to the complex environment in which an organization operates. Understanding paradigm, change, and chaos theory is vital in understanding the external environment. It also needs knowledge on the impact of socio-demographic, political, and economic issues.

You can address the said issues and institutional issues in the internal environment. On a smaller scale, you can focus on new technology and testing methods. Advances in information technology and practice parameters are also environmental changes.

Planning. According to this principle, any firm must enter into some contract with its clients. If “planning is management” is true, then it is a fundamental element.

Unfortunately, long-term planning generally takes a back seat to immediate patient care. In the hectic world of the lab, you must develop a goal and vision based on the demands of your clients.

The secret to successful planning is translating the negotiation process into a process. You need to turn ideal strategies, goals, and objectives into reality.

Structure. Understanding types of organizational configuration and their development is part of this principle. Structure components, intra-organizational and inter-organizational functional relationships exist in the lab. Modes of authority and control, and decision-making define this principle.

Values. This principle covers organizational social beliefs and ethical systems. Everyone must understand human rights, professional ethics, patient rights, and employee rights. It would help if you can give special attention to testing and its impact on the patient.

Communication. It is an organizational matrix that allows data and information to flow. This matrix can contain all forms of distribution, exchange, and learning in the lab. You can see it in computers, electronic and printing devices, and one-on-one communication.

Innovation. It is a management principle for the laboratory dealing with the present and future. It involves changing the way you do things.

It entails the ability to experiment with new approaches, methods, or devices. Innovation will help if you solve existing issues and create new opportunities. It could entail tweaking an existing paradigm or switching to a new one.

The effective interaction of all eight principles will result in high-quality laboratory services. It would be best if you met the interests of all parties involved.

What are the duties of a lab manager?

Being the head of a clinical laboratory is no easy feat. What are your responsibilities as a manager?

Managerial supervision, policy development, and overseeing administrative matters are your duties.

Clinical lab managers are in charge of supervising clinical laboratory scientists and technicians. You are also responsible for devising standard-compliant safety procedures. You also manage budgetary and administrative obligations.

Managers must also oversee the functionality of laboratory equipment. You need to train clinical laboratory staff on how to use the equipment. You must report the lab conditions to a supervisor. Your daily responsibilities are as follows:

You are in charge of managing the laboratory’s day-to-day operations. Keeping in touch with medical directors who supervise you is also your duty. You also need to coordinate the testing processes of many scientists.

The manager needs to check the verification procedures for precision and accuracy. All laboratory equipment must follow safety regulations; you must ensure that. Training and supervision of scientists and workers are part of your job description.

A lab manager identifies and resolves technical issues. You also need to analyze the demands of laboratory settings. Assuring the accuracy and security of patient data is also your job.

It would be best to make sure that your institution implements new techniques. The staffing is also your responsibility. You need to attend workshops to keep your professional knowledge updated. Finally, it would help if you do testing when you are short-staffed.

How do you become a lab manager?

Becoming a manager takes time, skill, and perseverance. How do you become one? You should take a suitable course and get some practical experience if you wish to be a lab manager.

You must have the willingness to understand the science of laboratory medicine. You also may learn management skills. A practitioner like you needs management abilities to enhance your career in leadership.

In the United States, entry-level clinical laboratory technologists need a bachelor’s degree. Some companies may demand managers to have graduate degrees in healthcare administration. You may compensate that one for a science-related graduate degree.

Many management roles need at least five years of experience. Clinical lab managers need to be well- versed in scientific and communication skills.

It would be helpful if you support your staff. You must have a good relationship with accreditation auditors and healthcare leaders. Strict attention to detail is crucial due to the nature of your work.

A manager’s tasks need scientific education, laboratory science expertise, and management skills. It is because your job involves managing sensitive patient information and biological samples.

How do you organize a lab?

Considering all these, how then will you organize your clinical lab? Will you be someone complacent and careless? Keeping things in check is one way of keeping the lab organized.

Before devising a strategy, gather the resources and personnel you’ll need. You need an organizational structure to ensure the implementation of the plan.

Focus your attention on directing your resources to meet your aim and objectives. Once the plan is in motion, it becomes evident that you need to update it always.

The first dimension of the organizational process is the formal organization. These are the job assignments, workgroups, and administrative lines of authority. The second is the social groups and friendships that exist in the organization.

Competent managers use organizations’ official and informal structures and methods. These help them do their goals.

As a lab manager, you must organize a clinical laboratory. It would help if you did this so that staff may collaborate. And when there is collaboration, you can meet institutional objectives.

Lab organization can take several shapes. Time, personnel, and physical space must be in order. A day is inadequate to finish all the tasks you want to complete, so know when to say no.

Lab meetings are an excellent method to keep people on track with their objectives. Meetings with the entire group keep members up to date on what’s going on in the lab. They can also help brainstorm and solve problems.

Top labs have regular meetings, both official and informal. One-on-one sessions are also beneficial for both members and the manager. It is because they allow for a more in-depth discussion of difficulties.

Yet, if lab meetings are not well-organized, they might become a waste of time. A meeting agenda can help you drop the need for repeated sessions to address a single issue. You can also use minutes to track research progress.

References

Clark, G. (1995, November 1). Eight principles of Laboratory Management. OUP Academic. https://academic.oup.com/labmed/article-abstract/26/11/713/2659293?redirectedFrom=PDF.

Conductscience (2019). Fundamentals of lab management. Conduct Science. https://conductscience.com/fundamentals-of-lab-management/.

Drummond, R. (n.d.). Clinical lab manager degrees, certifications & daily duties. mhaonline. https://www.mhaonline.com/faq/what-is-a-clinical-lab- manager#:~:text=Clinical%20lab%20managers%20are%20chiefly,overseeing%20budgetary%20and%20administrati ve%20responsibilities.

von Eiff, W., & Meyer, N. (2007). Laboratory management: The importance of quality and efficiency in patient care. HealthManagement. https://healthmanagement.org/c/hospital/issuearticle/laboratory-management-the- importance-of-quality-and-efficiency-in-patient-care.

Yadav, T. (2015). Laboratory management: The nature of management in the clinical laboratory. SlideShare.

Are pathophysiology and pathology the same?

Written by Elisha Kristin Pasco

Pathophysiology and pathology are essentially the same, except the fields have different scopes. Pathology deals with the disease and how it affects your body. Pathophysiology covers more ground. It studies the cause of illness, how it affects your body, the signs and symptoms, and treatment.

Pathophysiology and pathology are the same, but not quite.

Let us first consider etymology, the study of their origin. Both come from the words pathos and logos.

The word pathos is Greek for suffering. The root logos means discourse, defined as a system of formal studying. Together pathos and logos form the word pathology, the study of discomfort. It is the field in medicine that studies the anomalies in your body caused by disease.

Pathophysiology does not only have pathos and logos in its structure. It also has the Greek word physio, nature. When you add the physio together with logos, you get physiology. It studies how your body usually functions.

Adding pathos to physiology creates a different word, albeit related. It is the study of how a disease works and the changes it makes in your body. It also covers the signs and symptoms that you get and help your doctors provide the best possible care.

What is an example of pathophysiology?

Consider the pathophysiology of aortic regurgitation below. It will show you how the field tackles a disease. Before discussing the disorder, consider the different parts and functions of the organs affected.

Anatomy of the Heart

Your heart is a pumping muscle about the size of your fist. It is behind your breastbone, between your lungs. Its apex points at your left hip, with the wide part directed at your shoulder.

Your heart has four chambers. The left and right atrium receive the blood. The left and right ventricles are in charge of discharging the blood. These four chambers are divided by the septum longitudinally.

 The wall between the left and right chambers is the septum. 

Blood flows in your heart through valves. These are doors that ensure your blood is flowing in only one direction. Your heart has two sets of valves. The atrioventricular valves (AV) are between your atria and ventricles. Another set of valves, the semilunar valves, guard the bases between the largest arteries and the ventricles.

Physiology of the Heart

Whenever the heart beats and contracts, it pumps your blood throughout the body. Your ventricles do most of the pumping. With the atria, it alternates between contracting and relaxing.

The tightening of your heart occurs when it contracts, this is the systole. Diastole happens when your heart is at rest, it is relaxing in this stage.

Ventricular filling occurs when the heart is relaxing. The low pressure makes the blood pour from the atria to the ventricles. During this stage, AV valves are open, and the semilunar valves close. 

The semilunar valves open with the rise in blood pressure during systole. The blood strains into the cusps and pushes the semilunar valves open. It is called the ejection phase.

The ejection phase is a period in your cycle where the heart contracts. The AV valves close, allowing the atria to fill with blood.

Clinical Manifestation

Aortic regurgitation (AR) may present itself as either chronic or acute. 

Chronic regurgitation gives your heart time to adjust to the disorder. Usually, the patients do not have symptoms because their hearts can compensate. 

Symptoms appear only when the heart can no longer deal with the volume overload. It usually presents itself through left-sided failure. It occurs when the left ventricle weakens. It can no longer push enough blood around the body.

Acute AR does not give the heart time to adapt. The observable signs are shortness of breath, fluid in the lungs, and low blood pressure. Cardiovascular collapse may also occur. Your heart goes into shock due to the low pressure, which may lead to an abrupt loss in cardiac function.

Physical examinations of patients with chronic aortic regurgitation present the following signs:

Hyperdynamic and misplaced pulses or the abnormal rise in circulatory volume

• Three heart murmurs may be present

  • A high-pitched early diastolic murmur
  • A diastolic rumble called the Austin Flint murmur
  • A systolic murmur

• A third heartbeat may be present due to the extra volume of blood in the ventricle.

• The arterial impulse found in the left corner of your chest shifts

Observable signs for chronic aortic regurgitation may not be present during physical examination. The expansion of the left ventricle does not misplace the pulse. The diastolic murmur is softer, and the Austin Flint murmur is short.

Etiology

Acute AR may be due to the following disorders: 

Infective endocarditis is a disorder that affects the walls of your heart. It is due to bacteria entering the bloodstream that may lead to the destruction of the aortic valve.

Chest trauma may cause a tear in the aorta connected to your ventricles. It may disturb the aortic valve causing the blood to backflow.

The cause of chronic aortic regurgitation are as follows:

The bicuspid aortic valve is one of the most common causes of aortic regurgitation. Instead of having three cusps, the aortic valves have only two flaps. It hinders their task of preventing the backflow of blood. 

Weight loss medications can change the structure of your valves. It results in your blood leaking back to your ventricles. Examples of these medications are fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine.

Rheumatic fever is also a factor when people develop aortic valve regurgitation. The disorder caused the fibers in your valves to thicken, causing them to curl. When they bend, the boundary is not secured enough to ensure a unidirectional flow. 

Pathophysiology

AR occurs when blood from the aorta leaks back into the ventricle. It occurs due to anomalies in the structure of the aortic valve. 

These changes in the flaps cannot keep the blood flowing in one direction. The left ventricle receives blood from both the right atrium and the aorta. There is a volume overload in the chamber.

The pressure in the left ventricle rises because of the blood from the atria and aorta. Usually, when the heart is at rest, the strain in the chamber is low, blood flows freely from the atria. The walls of your pump will have to compensate for these changes.

If the leakage is gradual, your heart can adapt to the changes. It undergoes a few modifications to maintain your cardiac output. It is the amount of blood your heart pumps per minute.

Due to the volume overload in the left ventricle, the myocardial fibers in your blood stretch. These fibers elongate to compensate for the blood flowing back from the aorta.

When the myocardial fibers of your heart stretch, your left ventricle dilates. It enables the chamber to cater to the extra volume of blood it is receiving. The increase in the blood volume means that your main pump must work harder.

Aside from elongating, your heart compensates through hypertrophy. The walls in your heart harden to maintain the cardiac cycle. It thickens to adapt to the rise in pressure needed to pump the blood out.

Unfortunately, the contractility of the myocardial fibers diminishes over time. The ejection rate of blood outside your heart drops. The diastolic pressure increases with the volume. Your ventricles fail due to overwork; heart failure develops right after.

Treatment

Patients with mild aortic regurgitation usually do not display any symptoms. Usually, the treatment is dependent on whether there are visible signs of the disorder or not. 

If you do not have any symptoms, your doctor will usually opt for regular check-ups. You will have to do this to track the progression of the disease. There might also be a need for regular echocardiograms.

If you are at risk of high blood pressure, medications to lower them are necessary.

If the AR is severe, surgery may be an option. It may be through is open-heart surgery or a minimally invasive one. 

What does pathophysiology mean in simple terms?

Pathophysiology describes the changes in the functions of your body because of disease. These abnormalities may be present in your cells, tissues, organs, and body fluids.

It deals with the discrepancies in your body’s usual functions. It is a field that describes how your body responds to disruptions in its internal and external environment.

What do you write in pathophysiology?

Pathophysiology discusses four elements: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and treatment.

Etiology

Etiology investigates the cause of your disease. It determines whether your disorder is an infection, or if it is hereditary, or an accident. This field describes the disorder that started making alterations in your body.

The following are terms used to describe where your disease may have come from:

Idiopathic is the term for diseases with unidentifiable causes

• Iatrogenic is the name for diseases that occur due to unnecessary medical treatment.

Nosocomial are diseases that you get in a hospital due to necessary treatment. 

The Etiologic Classification of Disease are as follows:

o Degenerative diseases

o Iatrogenic diseases

o Idiopathic diseases

o Immunologic diseases

o Infectious diseases

o Inherited diseases

o Metabolic diseases

o Neoplastic diseases

o Nutritional deficiency diseases

o Physical agent-induced diseases

o Psychogenic diseases

Pathogenesis

Pathogenesis discusses the physical manifestations of the disease. It takes note of the changes in your body when you develop the disorder. 

It determines the cause and the set of events that follow. Pathogenesis does this by monitoring your cells, tissues, organs, and systemic functions. 

Clinical Manifestations

Clinical manifestations are the observable signs of disease in your body. These often result coming from pathogenesis. The data is from a series of examinations of the physical and chemical environment of your body.

Treatment

Pathophysiology is necessary when giving treatment. It enables your doctors and nurses to provide the best possible patient care available. They can do this through the proper study of your sickness origins and effects. 

Pathophysiology helps your healthcare providers track the progress of your disease. It also helps them see the effects of your medication because treatment is not just theory. Your body is unique. Thus, treatments that work on others may not be as efficient as yours.

What is clinical pathophysiology?

Clinical pathophysiology identifies the factors that contribute to the disease. It is the field that studies the processes of how you got the disease, why you have it, and its progression in your body. 

It explains the alterations in your physical and chemical environment. This field helps your doctors plan your treatment and give you the best patient care.

Does pathophysiology mean cause?

Pathophysiology does explain the cause of disease, but it is too broad. 

The field of pathophysiology deals with the following questions: How you got the disease? How did it develop in your body? How it affected your organs? Your chemical environment, etc. It does not just look at the cause.

Etiology, the study of the cause of disease, is a subset of pathophysiology. 

In other words, pathophysiology does give you the cause, but it also discusses the mechanisms of the disorder.

Which is the best book for pathophysiology?

The best pathophysiology book depends on how you wish to approach the subject. Textbooks made to cater to medical students are different. They do not cover the basics like anatomy and physiology.

That is why you must know the intended audience of the book.

Clinical Pathophysiology Made Ridiculously Simple by Aaron Berkowitz, M.D., Ph.D.

It is a book for beginners or fields other than medicine. It explains the basics of pathophysiology it does not go any deeper.

Pathophysiology of Disease: An Introduction to Clinical Medicine published by Lange 

If you are a student of medicine, you already know your anatomy and physiology. There is no need for repetitive and redundant information. 

Lange does not only provide you a deeper understanding of the disease but also case studies. These studies, written by doctors and professors, give you different outlooks towards the disease.

References

Albert, C. M., & Stevenson, W. G. (2018). Cardiovascular Collapse, Cardiac Arrest, and Sudden Cardiac Death. In D. L. Kasper, Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Brashers, V. L., & Rote, N. S. (2017). Understanding Pathophysiology (Sixth ed.). St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier Inc.

Hammer, G. D., & McPhee, S. J. (2014). Pathophysiology of Disease: An Introduction to Clinical Medicine. McGraw-Hill Education.

Huether, S. E., McCance, K. L., Brashers, V. L., & S., R. N. (2017). Introduction to Pathophysiology. In S. E. Huether, K. L. McCance, V. L. Brashers, & R. N. S., Understanding Pathophysiology (pp. 55-57). St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier.

Online Etymology Dictionary. (2021, August 18). Retrieved from pathos: https://www.etymonline.com/word/pathos

pathology. (n.d.). Retrieved August 20, 2021, from Online Etymology Dictionary: https://www.etymonline.com/word/pathology

pathology. (n.d.). Retrieved August 20, 2021, from Merriam-Webster: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/pathology

Types of Heart Failure. (2018, January 25). InformedHealth.org.

Wang, S. S. (2018, November 19). Aortic Regurgitation. Retrieved from the heart.org Medscape: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/150490-overview#a5

Witthöft, M. (2013). Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine. (M. D. Gellman, & J. R. Turner, Eds.) New York, New York: Springer.

Words of wisdom for learners and mentors

Words of wisdom for learners and mentors. Let us not be weary in doing good, for at the right time we will reap a harvest if we do not give up
from InkSights n Letters

What do you mean by anatomy and physiology?

Written by Marydel O. Cagadas

Defining anatomy will lead you to its Greek origin broken down into, ana which means “up” and temnein – “to cut.” Physiology formulated by the Greek terms physis – “nature or origin” and logia – “study of.”

Anatomy aims to understand the organs and structures of an organism. It started in Ancient Greece and developed through the time of the Renaissance. From dissection, it progressed to the use of technology such as non-invasive imaging.

To explain further, it provides you a context for the structure and location of all organs in the body. This field studies every part of a human. You will learn starting from molecules to cells up to how they form a functional whole.

From its word breakdown, you can’t still define physiology. It provides insights into the mechanical, physical, etc., processes supporting the body’s function. It’s centered on letting you learn the function of cells, organs, and tissues and how they work.

To recall, remember the direct definition of the two essential terms. Anatomy concentrates on the structure and relationships of the parts which compose an organism. In contrast, physiology focuses on the function of the body and its components.

What do you study in anatomy and physiology?

You have acquired an overview of what lessons are in both fields in the definition earlier. A&P is essential to those who are in the medical area. Of course, you’ll need to learn about the structure of the body and how it functions.

You’ll be able to gain knowledge about the causes, diagnoses, and treatment of diseases. Following these is knowing the effects of different conditions leading to discoveries. Knowing this information helps combat certain illnesses which can be life-threatening.

For example, you could learn how to develop cells or the different muscles used while doing sports. Controversial topics are also present, such as cell cloning, genetic engineering, or the impact of COVID-19 on a human being. These things may sound complex, but they could help you in many ways as they are observable in your everyday life.

Through A&P, you’ll be able to learn two distinct approaches to study a living organism. In anatomy, the focus will be on the structure of the organs and tissues that make up the biological systems. In comparison, physiology will always point out the functions of the different organ systems and their components.

Both areas of science are broad but are necessary. For someone who aims to be part of the medical workforce, a complete understanding of both A&P is essential. These fields may be vast, but one can familiarize and master both with reasonable effort and technique.

What are the 5 branches of anatomy?

As we all know, there are different branches in this field. There are two major types: Gross (Macroscopic) and Microscopic. Gross or macroscopic are observable through your naked eye, while microscopic studies the tiny anatomical structures.

These two significant types mentioned above have other subdivisions or classifications.

For Gross, which focuses on the external and internal organs, there are three different fields:

  • Surface or Superficial – is the study of external anatomical feature which doesn’t need dissection.
  • Regionalconcentrates on a human’s specific external and internal regions (e.g., head or chest). This type includes the unity of different systems in a particular area.
  • Systemic – this branch emphasizes the structure of different organ systems (e.g., circulatory or nervous system.) This branch gauges the position and structure of deeper organs, tissues, and organ systems.

Moving on towards microscopic, which helps you understand cells and tissues, there are two classifications, which are as follows:

  • Cytologystudies the structure and function of cells.
  • Histology – explains the details and organization of biological tissues.

The branches mentioned above are only the branches that aid you in learning the structure of humans, also known as anthropotomy (Study.com). There are still many branches that you can discover and here are few more examples:

  • Zootomy – the anatomical study of animals.
  • Phytotomy – the anatomical study of plants.
  • Comparative Anatomy compares the anatomical characteristics of different organisms.

What are the basics of anatomy?

In such a broad topic as this topic, you would wonder how to start learning this field. For an easier route to explain the basics, there are two objectives you need to achieve:

  • Identify specific terms used to describe directions and positions.
  • Describe the different organ systems.

Starting with the first objective, the following are the anatomical terms you need to remember:

  • Anatomical positionstandard reference position for the body in the study of anatomy. In this specific position, the body stands erect, facing the observer, arms down at the sides, and palms facing front.
  • Plane a flat surface formed when slicing through a solid object. A plane is observable when you cut through a dummy or imaginary human body.
  • Midlinethe imaginary line drawn down the center of the body. This divides it into right and left halves. This is in line with the navel.
  • Medialrefers to a position closer to the midline. For example, you would say: “The bridge of the nose is medial to the eyes.”
  • Lateralrefers to a position farther away from the midline. Example: The ears are lateral to the nose.
  • Bilateralon both sides.
  • Mid-axillarya line drawn perpendicular from the middle of the armpit to the ankle.
  • Anterior/Ventralfront of the body or organ.
  • Posterior/Dorsalback of the body or organ.
  • Superiormeans above (e.g., the chest is superior to the abdomen).
  • Inferiormeans below (e.g., the lips are inferior to the nose).
  • Proximalcloser to the torso (e.g., the elbow is proximal to the hand).
  • Distalaway from the torso (e.g., the wrist is distal to the shoulder).
  • Mid-clavicular lineline through the center of each clavicle.

Moving on to the second objective, which is to describe the different organ systems. These are the essential things you need to remember from each organ system:

Musculoskeletal Systemprovides structure to the body, allows movement, and protects the other systems. Built with various bones and muscles, this is system have the following components:

  • Skull – primary function is to enclose and protect the brain. It provides a structure for the face and allows movement of the head.
  • Spineconsists of 33 vertebrae stacked one upon the other to form the spinal column. It is important for movement, sensation, and other vital functions.
  • Thoracic Cage (Rib Cage)protects the lungs and heart. It holds a vital role in the expansion and contraction of the lungs.
  • Pelvic girdleis one of the most complex anatomical structures. It contains several attachment points for various large muscles groups of both the trunk and legs.
  • Limbsarms and legs; composed of many different joints and attachment points to allow precise and varied movement.
  • Muscles consist of a bundle of smaller fibers (myofibrils) anchored to a bone via a tendon and innervated by nerves—three types: voluntary, involuntary, and cardiac.

Circulatory Systemits role in the delivery of oxygen and glucose to cells and removal of waste.

  • The system consists of a pump, pipes, and the fluid they carry.
  • Heart the four-chambered pump: two upper called atria and two lower called ventricles.
  • AtriaRight Atrium: the chamber that receives unoxygenated blood returning from the body; Left atrium: the chamber that receives oxygenated blood from the lungs.
  • VentriclesRight Ventricle: the chamber that sends oxygen-poor blood to the lungs; Left Ventricle: the chamber that sends oxygen-rich blood to the body.
  • Blood Vessels smooth muscle tubes that can expand and contract. It does not only carry blood but regulates its flow to different areas of the body. Types: arteries, veins, venules, and capillaries – all have distinct functions.
  • Bloodred liquid that flows through the body of a living organism. It has many components in different cells: red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), platelets, etc.

The Nervous Systemcontrols the entire body. It involves the fibers that run across every inch of the body, which controls muscles, organs, and glands. Two divisions:

  • Central Nervous System (CNS) composed of the brain and spinal cord. Neurons make up both structures and support cells together with large blood vessels and capillaries.
  • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)extensive and covers all areas of the body. It’s composed of nerves that have numerous functions: it controls the movement, organ function and returns sensory information towards the spinal cord and brain.

Digestive System – exists to break down and absorb ingested material for energy & creation of new cells.

  • It has two divisions: hollow organs and solid organs.

Respiratory Systemits role is to bring oxygen from the air. An organism can only get oxygen through blood circulation.

  • Hollow Organs composed of the esophagus, stomach, and intestines.
  • Esophagus: a physical tube that connects the mouth to the stomach.
  • Stomach: both grinds up food and digest it with acid.
  • Intestines: absorbs nutrients (small); resorption of water and formation of feces (large).
  • Solid organs composed of the liver and pancreas.
  • Liver: has a dual purpose of producing bile – helps absorb fats in the intestines and detoxify the blood.
  • Pancreas: also has a dual role – production of enzymes that break down protein and hormones that balance blood glucose.
  • Upper Respiratory Tract – (nose & mouth) handles the initial cleaning and warming of air before transmission to the lower airways. It carries air, food & fluids to the esophagus.
  • Lower Respiratory Tracttransfers air through a branching inverted three made up of the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles until it reaches the alveoli. These organs are responsible for how blood gets oxygen.
  • Diaphragm: a sheet of muscle at the base of the lungs. It pulls air into the airways through the negative pressure in the chest.

Integumentary Systemprovides the physical barrier between the inner systems of the body and the outside environment. Three main layers:

  • Epidermis: a thick layer of dead cells. It acts as the sacrificial layer of the body.
  • Dermis: living skin layer with cells that continue to multiply and divide.
  • Subcutaneous layer: fat storage that acts as a significant insulating layer for the body.

You can explore more organ systems, but the mentioned six systems are the most common ones.

What is the main difference between anatomy and physiology?

This question goes back towards the definition of both terms wherein; anatomy is the study of the structures associated with the human body. Meanwhile, physiology is the study of the function of each system. Both offer distinct ways of studying a living organism.

Both fields have different subjects to study. Anatomy focuses on the size, shape, and location of a living organism’s body structures. In comparison, physiology focuses on the chemical, physical, and electrical processes of the organism.

Anatomy can stand alone. You can understand it through the dissection of one living organism. In contrast, physiology needs to be together to understand each organ’s function and its systems.

Although anatomy can be independent, it is still essential to learn both fields as they are necessary to medical science.

Why is anatomy so important?

It is essential for countless reasons. But for allied health providers, it is necessary as the concerns of your patients’ needs knowledge in this field.

Let’s start by discussing diagnoses. Upon diagnosing a patient for a particular disease, anatomy plays a vital role in pinpointing the specific location of the pain they feel. You can also determine through it why this abnormality is fatal.

Identification of physical symptoms or irregularities are not the only things discovered through anatomy. At a microscopic level, you can identify new diseases through the study. With the help of this identification, you can explore how to combat these illnesses.

After diagnosis, through anatomy, it is easier to help your patients understand what disease they have. A complete understanding of this field is a must to simplify complex terms for those not in the medical field. Making your patients understand can help in letting them feel at ease despite the pain they are feeling.

Remember that you need to understand the structure of a human and the corresponding functions of each system. There is an interconnection between organ systems that a disease in one system can affect the others. Without considering these connections, it can be dangerous and may lead to misdiagnosis.

The field of medicine requires three things:

  1. You must have the character to be able to support and help patients.
  2. You must have the specific technical knowledge necessary to make justified decisions.
  3. You must have the required clinical skills to use the knowledge you have learned.

Learning anatomy falls to the second condition. Thus, it is essential. It is challenging to master this field, but you can do it with perseverance and hard work.

Is studying anatomy hard?

As mentioned earlier, learning anatomy is challenging. You need to have a considerable amount of time and dedication. Perseverance, patience, and hard work are necessary because there are no shortcuts.

Expect that you need to invest 10-12 hours or even more per week of studying. This time estimation is only for study sessions you spend during breaks or outside class. Time management is vital while learning this field.

It needs a lot of memorization. This skill includes both visuals (cadavers, 3D models, charts) and the definition of terms. It would be best if you prepared techniques so you can store all information.

Critical thinking is also a component that you need to consider. With it, you’ll be able to identify a part of anatomy based on clues. This skill needs countless enhancements before you can acquire it.

Even though it is challenging, learning anatomy is not impossible. You need to develop the proper study techniques. Being equipped with all the mentioned values, skills, and practices would guarantee your learning.

REFERENCES:

Anatomy – Dictionary Definition. (n.d.). Vocabulary.Com. Retrieved August 17, 2021, from https://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/anatomy

Cena, C. (2020, May 11). Study.com | Take Online Courses. Earn College Credit. Research Schools, Degrees & Careers. Study.Com. https://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-anatomy-definition-history.html

Helmenstine, A. M. (2019, July 3). Understand the Difference Between Anatomy and Physiology. ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/difference-between-anatomy-and-physiology-4147571

Introduction to A&P | MedicTests. (n.d.). Medictests. Retrieved August 16, 2021, from https://medictests.com/units/introduction-to-a-p

Jaquith, K. (2015, February 27). 9 Study Tips To Help You Learn Human Anatomy. Universal Medical Inc. Blog. https://blog.universalmedicalinc.com/9-study-tips-help-learn-human-anatomy/

Oltre, A. (n.d.). Anatomy Next. Anatomy. Retrieved August 16, 2021, from https://anatomy.net/blog/human-anatomy/

Overview of Anatomy and Physiology | Boundless Anatomy and Physiology. (n.d.). Lumen. Retrieved August 16, 2021, from https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-ap/chapter/overview-of-anatomy-and-physiology/

Physiological – Dictionary Definition. (n.d.). Vocabulary.Com. Retrieved August 17, 2021, from https://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/physiological#:%7E:text=You%20know%20that%20the%20root,body%20(think%20of%20those%20phys.&text=That%20root%20comes%20from%20the,Ta%2Dtaa!

Reporter, G. S. (2019, June 7). University subject profile: anatomy and physiology. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/education/2019/jun/07/subject-guide-anatomy-and-physiology

Stanford, K., Rutland, S., Sturrock, C. J., & Rutland, C. S. (2020). The Importance of Anatomy. Frontiers for Young Minds, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/frym.2020.546763

What Is Anatomy and Physiology? (n.d.). CliffsNotes. Retrieved August 16, 2021, from https://www.cliffsnotes.com/study-guides/anatomy-and-physiology/anatomy-and-chemistry-basics/what-is-anatomy-and-physiology

Why is Human Anatomy and Physiology so important to your success in a health care field? (n.d.). Dept.Clcillinois.Ed. Retrieved August 16, 2021, from http://dept.clcillinois.edu/biodv/healthlibrary/pdf/WhyAP.pdf

Do you want to learn graphic design and earn online?

Do you want to learn graphic design and earn money? Improve your skills with Upskill now!
from UpSkill Creatives

Do you want to learn graphic design and get online clients to earn money? Upskill is here to help you achieve that goal. Getaprofessor partners with Upskill to allow people to learn new skills, improve themselves and earn online even in the midst of a global pandemic.

This coming Saturday, September 4, 2021 at 7:30pm, we will have another brand new workshop for beginners and experienced graphic designers.

We are inviting all those who want to learn new things when it comes to freelancing and graphic design.

Coach Juan will be giving an ALL-OUT experience for those who want to discover what opportunities await for those who want to enter freelancing.

If you think it’s your time now to 𝙐𝙋grade your 𝙎𝙆𝙄𝙇𝙇𝙎, be part of this ✨𝙁𝙍𝙀𝙀 𝙒𝙊𝙍𝙆𝙎𝙃𝙊𝙋!✨

Everyone is welcome even if you have no prior background in designing.

SURPRISES awaits at the end of the workshop!See you this Saturday!

DON’T forget to RESERVE your slots here!

https://bit.ly/3zDRHQg

https://bit.ly/3zDRHQg

https://bit.ly/3zDRHQg

Get a mentor now from Upskill!

Words of Wisdom for learners and mentors

Consider it pure joy, my brothers and sisters,[a] whenever you face trials of many kinds, 3 because you know that the testing of your faith produces perseverance. 4 Let perseverance finish its work so that you may be mature and complete, not lacking anything.
from InkSights n Letters

you're currently offline

New Report

Close