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What is laboratory management and organization?

Written by Ian Jay B. Francisco

The clinical laboratory is a melting pot of diverse people. As the head of the lab, how will you guide your personnel despite the setbacks? Organizing your resources and staffing will help you deliver quality medical services.

Test results have to be accurate and reliable. Approximately 70% of medical-related decisions rely on these results. Moreover, labs in the United States perform 7-10 billion tests every year.

Any occurrence of inaccurate results leads to significant consequences. Your erroneous test results may increase your patient’s expenses. Unnecessary procedures and complications because of wrong medication are some of these consequences.

The successful delivery of service relies on managerial practices. The workplace environment depends on how you supervise and direct workflow. Communication must also exist within the institution.

Laboratory management aims to provide adequate health services. It involves the integration and coordination of various organizational resources like human resources.

It aims to lead the laboratory staff to carry out their tasks within limited time and supplies. It includes supervising daily operations and training new personnel. It also involves refilling consumables and keeping records of activities.

There are four different types of management:

Planning. A manager can plan to see the lab’s trajectory.

Organizing. As a manager, you select who works on which project and technique. You also supervise the timetables and budgets for various projects. Thus, you must stay up to date with research.

Leading. A manager’s ability to lead is crucial. You determine the lab’s environment and pace. Good leadership may motivate members to be more productive and creative.

Controlling. Being a manager involves assessing the progress of members and projects. You must have the ability to address issues as they arise.

In an alternative sense, lab organization encompasses the physical establishment and operation. The areas may overlap when the facility is small. People that strive to achieve a common goal comprise organizations. These societal units need management to achieve their respective goals.

Generally, a laboratory is like a vehicle. It needs someone to maneuver the institution towards success. It should have a strategy with clear objectives and methods for achieving them. There should be a manager who instructs and ensures the quality of all activities.

What is the importance of laboratory management?

Why is laboratory management critical? How does it influence your laboratory’s trajectory? Lab management may improve service efficiency.

Diagnoses generally depend on laboratory results. The laboratory-diagnostic management process maintains quality while lowering costs. Thus, a lab needs management to function.

The lab must use the most appropriate test methods and equipment for patient care. Management is the process of organizing human and physical resources into functional units. As head, you must achieve your goals while keeping your staff’s morale high.

You have to take note that you have to follow international standards. To ensure the best operation, you need to install quality management systems. Your laboratory accreditation will also help you show competence.

You need to analyze data about your operations and identify ways to improve them. Heads review and audit to track the operation of a laboratory. Yet, not all laboratories have the resources to create these tools.

Cooperation with your healthcare customers is an essential aspect of laboratory operation. This collaboration requires better management to cater to customer feedback. Laboratories check potential nonconformities in their operations and, if necessary, take corrective action.

Competency is the foundation of a high-quality laboratory operation. You should train and educate your employees. Greater emphasis on training planning and effectiveness should be the priority of heads.

Yet, a training plan might not cover all employees. There is still a need for better validation planning, even if you use validated methods.

Laboratories provide all necessary information to healthcare units to guide patients. But one major issue is that patients do not follow these instructions. The need for more collaboration to combat miscommunication is evident.

Healthcare units expect a lot from labs. Such expectations include expert consultation and state-of-the- art examination methods. You can always help your personnel provide quality medical service.

What are the principles of laboratory management?

A curriculum in clinical lab management represents the essence of management. What are its core principles? Lab management involves leadership, behavior, environment, planning, structure, values, communication, and innovation.

Leadership. It’s important to distinguish between management and leadership. Leadership implies influence by example and motivation. It stands alone as a fundamental principle.

Management implies direction by authority and control. It means guidance by power and control, and it is an element of the code of structure.

You can learn and hone the necessary characteristics, skills, and responsibilities for leading. In other words, you do not need to be a “natural leader.” There must also be a distinction between situational (reactive) and anticipative (proactive) leadership.

Behavior. The behavioral principle combines the psychological makeup of individuals and organizations. Considering Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, understanding organizational behavior begins with individual psychology. It is because the organization and its members have similar conditions to succeed.

Environment. It refers to the complex environment in which an organization operates. Understanding paradigm, change, and chaos theory is vital in understanding the external environment. It also needs knowledge on the impact of socio-demographic, political, and economic issues.

You can address the said issues and institutional issues in the internal environment. On a smaller scale, you can focus on new technology and testing methods. Advances in information technology and practice parameters are also environmental changes.

Planning. According to this principle, any firm must enter into some contract with its clients. If “planning is management” is true, then it is a fundamental element.

Unfortunately, long-term planning generally takes a back seat to immediate patient care. In the hectic world of the lab, you must develop a goal and vision based on the demands of your clients.

The secret to successful planning is translating the negotiation process into a process. You need to turn ideal strategies, goals, and objectives into reality.

Structure. Understanding types of organizational configuration and their development is part of this principle. Structure components, intra-organizational and inter-organizational functional relationships exist in the lab. Modes of authority and control, and decision-making define this principle.

Values. This principle covers organizational social beliefs and ethical systems. Everyone must understand human rights, professional ethics, patient rights, and employee rights. It would help if you can give special attention to testing and its impact on the patient.

Communication. It is an organizational matrix that allows data and information to flow. This matrix can contain all forms of distribution, exchange, and learning in the lab. You can see it in computers, electronic and printing devices, and one-on-one communication.

Innovation. It is a management principle for the laboratory dealing with the present and future. It involves changing the way you do things.

It entails the ability to experiment with new approaches, methods, or devices. Innovation will help if you solve existing issues and create new opportunities. It could entail tweaking an existing paradigm or switching to a new one.

The effective interaction of all eight principles will result in high-quality laboratory services. It would be best if you met the interests of all parties involved.

What are the duties of a lab manager?

Being the head of a clinical laboratory is no easy feat. What are your responsibilities as a manager?

Managerial supervision, policy development, and overseeing administrative matters are your duties.

Clinical lab managers are in charge of supervising clinical laboratory scientists and technicians. You are also responsible for devising standard-compliant safety procedures. You also manage budgetary and administrative obligations.

Managers must also oversee the functionality of laboratory equipment. You need to train clinical laboratory staff on how to use the equipment. You must report the lab conditions to a supervisor. Your daily responsibilities are as follows:

You are in charge of managing the laboratory’s day-to-day operations. Keeping in touch with medical directors who supervise you is also your duty. You also need to coordinate the testing processes of many scientists.

The manager needs to check the verification procedures for precision and accuracy. All laboratory equipment must follow safety regulations; you must ensure that. Training and supervision of scientists and workers are part of your job description.

A lab manager identifies and resolves technical issues. You also need to analyze the demands of laboratory settings. Assuring the accuracy and security of patient data is also your job.

It would be best to make sure that your institution implements new techniques. The staffing is also your responsibility. You need to attend workshops to keep your professional knowledge updated. Finally, it would help if you do testing when you are short-staffed.

How do you become a lab manager?

Becoming a manager takes time, skill, and perseverance. How do you become one? You should take a suitable course and get some practical experience if you wish to be a lab manager.

You must have the willingness to understand the science of laboratory medicine. You also may learn management skills. A practitioner like you needs management abilities to enhance your career in leadership.

In the United States, entry-level clinical laboratory technologists need a bachelor’s degree. Some companies may demand managers to have graduate degrees in healthcare administration. You may compensate that one for a science-related graduate degree.

Many management roles need at least five years of experience. Clinical lab managers need to be well- versed in scientific and communication skills.

It would be helpful if you support your staff. You must have a good relationship with accreditation auditors and healthcare leaders. Strict attention to detail is crucial due to the nature of your work.

A manager’s tasks need scientific education, laboratory science expertise, and management skills. It is because your job involves managing sensitive patient information and biological samples.

How do you organize a lab?

Considering all these, how then will you organize your clinical lab? Will you be someone complacent and careless? Keeping things in check is one way of keeping the lab organized.

Before devising a strategy, gather the resources and personnel you’ll need. You need an organizational structure to ensure the implementation of the plan.

Focus your attention on directing your resources to meet your aim and objectives. Once the plan is in motion, it becomes evident that you need to update it always.

The first dimension of the organizational process is the formal organization. These are the job assignments, workgroups, and administrative lines of authority. The second is the social groups and friendships that exist in the organization.

Competent managers use organizations’ official and informal structures and methods. These help them do their goals.

As a lab manager, you must organize a clinical laboratory. It would help if you did this so that staff may collaborate. And when there is collaboration, you can meet institutional objectives.

Lab organization can take several shapes. Time, personnel, and physical space must be in order. A day is inadequate to finish all the tasks you want to complete, so know when to say no.

Lab meetings are an excellent method to keep people on track with their objectives. Meetings with the entire group keep members up to date on what’s going on in the lab. They can also help brainstorm and solve problems.

Top labs have regular meetings, both official and informal. One-on-one sessions are also beneficial for both members and the manager. It is because they allow for a more in-depth discussion of difficulties.

Yet, if lab meetings are not well-organized, they might become a waste of time. A meeting agenda can help you drop the need for repeated sessions to address a single issue. You can also use minutes to track research progress.


Clark, G. (1995, November 1). Eight principles of Laboratory Management. OUP Academic.

Conductscience (2019). Fundamentals of lab management. Conduct Science.

Drummond, R. (n.d.). Clinical lab manager degrees, certifications & daily duties. mhaonline. manager#:~:text=Clinical%20lab%20managers%20are%20chiefly,overseeing%20budgetary%20and%20administrati ve%20responsibilities.

von Eiff, W., & Meyer, N. (2007). Laboratory management: The importance of quality and efficiency in patient care. HealthManagement. importance-of-quality-and-efficiency-in-patient-care.

Yadav, T. (2015). Laboratory management: The nature of management in the clinical laboratory. SlideShare.

Are pathophysiology and pathology the same?

Written by Elisha Kristin Pasco

Pathophysiology and pathology are essentially the same, except the fields have different scopes. Pathology deals with the disease and how it affects your body. Pathophysiology covers more ground. It studies the cause of illness, how it affects your body, the signs and symptoms, and treatment.

Pathophysiology and pathology are the same, but not quite.

Let us first consider etymology, the study of their origin. Both come from the words pathos and logos.

The word pathos is Greek for suffering. The root logos means discourse, defined as a system of formal studying. Together pathos and logos form the word pathology, the study of discomfort. It is the field in medicine that studies the anomalies in your body caused by disease.

Pathophysiology does not only have pathos and logos in its structure. It also has the Greek word physio, nature. When you add the physio together with logos, you get physiology. It studies how your body usually functions.

Adding pathos to physiology creates a different word, albeit related. It is the study of how a disease works and the changes it makes in your body. It also covers the signs and symptoms that you get and help your doctors provide the best possible care.

What is an example of pathophysiology?

Consider the pathophysiology of aortic regurgitation below. It will show you how the field tackles a disease. Before discussing the disorder, consider the different parts and functions of the organs affected.

Anatomy of the Heart

Your heart is a pumping muscle about the size of your fist. It is behind your breastbone, between your lungs. Its apex points at your left hip, with the wide part directed at your shoulder.

Your heart has four chambers. The left and right atrium receive the blood. The left and right ventricles are in charge of discharging the blood. These four chambers are divided by the septum longitudinally.

 The wall between the left and right chambers is the septum. 

Blood flows in your heart through valves. These are doors that ensure your blood is flowing in only one direction. Your heart has two sets of valves. The atrioventricular valves (AV) are between your atria and ventricles. Another set of valves, the semilunar valves, guard the bases between the largest arteries and the ventricles.

Physiology of the Heart

Whenever the heart beats and contracts, it pumps your blood throughout the body. Your ventricles do most of the pumping. With the atria, it alternates between contracting and relaxing.

The tightening of your heart occurs when it contracts, this is the systole. Diastole happens when your heart is at rest, it is relaxing in this stage.

Ventricular filling occurs when the heart is relaxing. The low pressure makes the blood pour from the atria to the ventricles. During this stage, AV valves are open, and the semilunar valves close. 

The semilunar valves open with the rise in blood pressure during systole. The blood strains into the cusps and pushes the semilunar valves open. It is called the ejection phase.

The ejection phase is a period in your cycle where the heart contracts. The AV valves close, allowing the atria to fill with blood.

Clinical Manifestation

Aortic regurgitation (AR) may present itself as either chronic or acute. 

Chronic regurgitation gives your heart time to adjust to the disorder. Usually, the patients do not have symptoms because their hearts can compensate. 

Symptoms appear only when the heart can no longer deal with the volume overload. It usually presents itself through left-sided failure. It occurs when the left ventricle weakens. It can no longer push enough blood around the body.

Acute AR does not give the heart time to adapt. The observable signs are shortness of breath, fluid in the lungs, and low blood pressure. Cardiovascular collapse may also occur. Your heart goes into shock due to the low pressure, which may lead to an abrupt loss in cardiac function.

Physical examinations of patients with chronic aortic regurgitation present the following signs:

Hyperdynamic and misplaced pulses or the abnormal rise in circulatory volume

• Three heart murmurs may be present

  • A high-pitched early diastolic murmur
  • A diastolic rumble called the Austin Flint murmur
  • A systolic murmur

• A third heartbeat may be present due to the extra volume of blood in the ventricle.

• The arterial impulse found in the left corner of your chest shifts

Observable signs for chronic aortic regurgitation may not be present during physical examination. The expansion of the left ventricle does not misplace the pulse. The diastolic murmur is softer, and the Austin Flint murmur is short.


Acute AR may be due to the following disorders: 

Infective endocarditis is a disorder that affects the walls of your heart. It is due to bacteria entering the bloodstream that may lead to the destruction of the aortic valve.

Chest trauma may cause a tear in the aorta connected to your ventricles. It may disturb the aortic valve causing the blood to backflow.

The cause of chronic aortic regurgitation are as follows:

The bicuspid aortic valve is one of the most common causes of aortic regurgitation. Instead of having three cusps, the aortic valves have only two flaps. It hinders their task of preventing the backflow of blood. 

Weight loss medications can change the structure of your valves. It results in your blood leaking back to your ventricles. Examples of these medications are fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine.

Rheumatic fever is also a factor when people develop aortic valve regurgitation. The disorder caused the fibers in your valves to thicken, causing them to curl. When they bend, the boundary is not secured enough to ensure a unidirectional flow. 


AR occurs when blood from the aorta leaks back into the ventricle. It occurs due to anomalies in the structure of the aortic valve. 

These changes in the flaps cannot keep the blood flowing in one direction. The left ventricle receives blood from both the right atrium and the aorta. There is a volume overload in the chamber.

The pressure in the left ventricle rises because of the blood from the atria and aorta. Usually, when the heart is at rest, the strain in the chamber is low, blood flows freely from the atria. The walls of your pump will have to compensate for these changes.

If the leakage is gradual, your heart can adapt to the changes. It undergoes a few modifications to maintain your cardiac output. It is the amount of blood your heart pumps per minute.

Due to the volume overload in the left ventricle, the myocardial fibers in your blood stretch. These fibers elongate to compensate for the blood flowing back from the aorta.

When the myocardial fibers of your heart stretch, your left ventricle dilates. It enables the chamber to cater to the extra volume of blood it is receiving. The increase in the blood volume means that your main pump must work harder.

Aside from elongating, your heart compensates through hypertrophy. The walls in your heart harden to maintain the cardiac cycle. It thickens to adapt to the rise in pressure needed to pump the blood out.

Unfortunately, the contractility of the myocardial fibers diminishes over time. The ejection rate of blood outside your heart drops. The diastolic pressure increases with the volume. Your ventricles fail due to overwork; heart failure develops right after.


Patients with mild aortic regurgitation usually do not display any symptoms. Usually, the treatment is dependent on whether there are visible signs of the disorder or not. 

If you do not have any symptoms, your doctor will usually opt for regular check-ups. You will have to do this to track the progression of the disease. There might also be a need for regular echocardiograms.

If you are at risk of high blood pressure, medications to lower them are necessary.

If the AR is severe, surgery may be an option. It may be through is open-heart surgery or a minimally invasive one. 

What does pathophysiology mean in simple terms?

Pathophysiology describes the changes in the functions of your body because of disease. These abnormalities may be present in your cells, tissues, organs, and body fluids.

It deals with the discrepancies in your body’s usual functions. It is a field that describes how your body responds to disruptions in its internal and external environment.

What do you write in pathophysiology?

Pathophysiology discusses four elements: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and treatment.


Etiology investigates the cause of your disease. It determines whether your disorder is an infection, or if it is hereditary, or an accident. This field describes the disorder that started making alterations in your body.

The following are terms used to describe where your disease may have come from:

Idiopathic is the term for diseases with unidentifiable causes

• Iatrogenic is the name for diseases that occur due to unnecessary medical treatment.

Nosocomial are diseases that you get in a hospital due to necessary treatment. 

The Etiologic Classification of Disease are as follows:

o Degenerative diseases

o Iatrogenic diseases

o Idiopathic diseases

o Immunologic diseases

o Infectious diseases

o Inherited diseases

o Metabolic diseases

o Neoplastic diseases

o Nutritional deficiency diseases

o Physical agent-induced diseases

o Psychogenic diseases


Pathogenesis discusses the physical manifestations of the disease. It takes note of the changes in your body when you develop the disorder. 

It determines the cause and the set of events that follow. Pathogenesis does this by monitoring your cells, tissues, organs, and systemic functions. 

Clinical Manifestations

Clinical manifestations are the observable signs of disease in your body. These often result coming from pathogenesis. The data is from a series of examinations of the physical and chemical environment of your body.


Pathophysiology is necessary when giving treatment. It enables your doctors and nurses to provide the best possible patient care available. They can do this through the proper study of your sickness origins and effects. 

Pathophysiology helps your healthcare providers track the progress of your disease. It also helps them see the effects of your medication because treatment is not just theory. Your body is unique. Thus, treatments that work on others may not be as efficient as yours.

What is clinical pathophysiology?

Clinical pathophysiology identifies the factors that contribute to the disease. It is the field that studies the processes of how you got the disease, why you have it, and its progression in your body. 

It explains the alterations in your physical and chemical environment. This field helps your doctors plan your treatment and give you the best patient care.

Does pathophysiology mean cause?

Pathophysiology does explain the cause of disease, but it is too broad. 

The field of pathophysiology deals with the following questions: How you got the disease? How did it develop in your body? How it affected your organs? Your chemical environment, etc. It does not just look at the cause.

Etiology, the study of the cause of disease, is a subset of pathophysiology. 

In other words, pathophysiology does give you the cause, but it also discusses the mechanisms of the disorder.

Which is the best book for pathophysiology?

The best pathophysiology book depends on how you wish to approach the subject. Textbooks made to cater to medical students are different. They do not cover the basics like anatomy and physiology.

That is why you must know the intended audience of the book.

Clinical Pathophysiology Made Ridiculously Simple by Aaron Berkowitz, M.D., Ph.D.

It is a book for beginners or fields other than medicine. It explains the basics of pathophysiology it does not go any deeper.

Pathophysiology of Disease: An Introduction to Clinical Medicine published by Lange 

If you are a student of medicine, you already know your anatomy and physiology. There is no need for repetitive and redundant information. 

Lange does not only provide you a deeper understanding of the disease but also case studies. These studies, written by doctors and professors, give you different outlooks towards the disease.


Albert, C. M., & Stevenson, W. G. (2018). Cardiovascular Collapse, Cardiac Arrest, and Sudden Cardiac Death. In D. L. Kasper, Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Brashers, V. L., & Rote, N. S. (2017). Understanding Pathophysiology (Sixth ed.). St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier Inc.

Hammer, G. D., & McPhee, S. J. (2014). Pathophysiology of Disease: An Introduction to Clinical Medicine. McGraw-Hill Education.

Huether, S. E., McCance, K. L., Brashers, V. L., & S., R. N. (2017). Introduction to Pathophysiology. In S. E. Huether, K. L. McCance, V. L. Brashers, & R. N. S., Understanding Pathophysiology (pp. 55-57). St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier.

Online Etymology Dictionary. (2021, August 18). Retrieved from pathos:

pathology. (n.d.). Retrieved August 20, 2021, from Online Etymology Dictionary:

pathology. (n.d.). Retrieved August 20, 2021, from Merriam-Webster:

Types of Heart Failure. (2018, January 25).

Wang, S. S. (2018, November 19). Aortic Regurgitation. Retrieved from the Medscape:

Witthöft, M. (2013). Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine. (M. D. Gellman, & J. R. Turner, Eds.) New York, New York: Springer.

Words of wisdom for learners and mentors

Words of wisdom for learners and mentors. Let us not be weary in doing good, for at the right time we will reap a harvest if we do not give up
from InkSights n Letters

What do you mean by anatomy and physiology?

Written by Marydel O. Cagadas

Defining anatomy will lead you to its Greek origin broken down into, ana which means “up” and temnein – “to cut.” Physiology formulated by the Greek terms physis – “nature or origin” and logia – “study of.”

Anatomy aims to understand the organs and structures of an organism. It started in Ancient Greece and developed through the time of the Renaissance. From dissection, it progressed to the use of technology such as non-invasive imaging.

To explain further, it provides you a context for the structure and location of all organs in the body. This field studies every part of a human. You will learn starting from molecules to cells up to how they form a functional whole.

From its word breakdown, you can’t still define physiology. It provides insights into the mechanical, physical, etc., processes supporting the body’s function. It’s centered on letting you learn the function of cells, organs, and tissues and how they work.

To recall, remember the direct definition of the two essential terms. Anatomy concentrates on the structure and relationships of the parts which compose an organism. In contrast, physiology focuses on the function of the body and its components.

What do you study in anatomy and physiology?

You have acquired an overview of what lessons are in both fields in the definition earlier. A&P is essential to those who are in the medical area. Of course, you’ll need to learn about the structure of the body and how it functions.

You’ll be able to gain knowledge about the causes, diagnoses, and treatment of diseases. Following these is knowing the effects of different conditions leading to discoveries. Knowing this information helps combat certain illnesses which can be life-threatening.

For example, you could learn how to develop cells or the different muscles used while doing sports. Controversial topics are also present, such as cell cloning, genetic engineering, or the impact of COVID-19 on a human being. These things may sound complex, but they could help you in many ways as they are observable in your everyday life.

Through A&P, you’ll be able to learn two distinct approaches to study a living organism. In anatomy, the focus will be on the structure of the organs and tissues that make up the biological systems. In comparison, physiology will always point out the functions of the different organ systems and their components.

Both areas of science are broad but are necessary. For someone who aims to be part of the medical workforce, a complete understanding of both A&P is essential. These fields may be vast, but one can familiarize and master both with reasonable effort and technique.

What are the 5 branches of anatomy?

As we all know, there are different branches in this field. There are two major types: Gross (Macroscopic) and Microscopic. Gross or macroscopic are observable through your naked eye, while microscopic studies the tiny anatomical structures.

These two significant types mentioned above have other subdivisions or classifications.

For Gross, which focuses on the external and internal organs, there are three different fields:

  • Surface or Superficial – is the study of external anatomical feature which doesn’t need dissection.
  • Regionalconcentrates on a human’s specific external and internal regions (e.g., head or chest). This type includes the unity of different systems in a particular area.
  • Systemic – this branch emphasizes the structure of different organ systems (e.g., circulatory or nervous system.) This branch gauges the position and structure of deeper organs, tissues, and organ systems.

Moving on towards microscopic, which helps you understand cells and tissues, there are two classifications, which are as follows:

  • Cytologystudies the structure and function of cells.
  • Histology – explains the details and organization of biological tissues.

The branches mentioned above are only the branches that aid you in learning the structure of humans, also known as anthropotomy ( There are still many branches that you can discover and here are few more examples:

  • Zootomy – the anatomical study of animals.
  • Phytotomy – the anatomical study of plants.
  • Comparative Anatomy compares the anatomical characteristics of different organisms.

What are the basics of anatomy?

In such a broad topic as this topic, you would wonder how to start learning this field. For an easier route to explain the basics, there are two objectives you need to achieve:

  • Identify specific terms used to describe directions and positions.
  • Describe the different organ systems.

Starting with the first objective, the following are the anatomical terms you need to remember:

  • Anatomical positionstandard reference position for the body in the study of anatomy. In this specific position, the body stands erect, facing the observer, arms down at the sides, and palms facing front.
  • Plane a flat surface formed when slicing through a solid object. A plane is observable when you cut through a dummy or imaginary human body.
  • Midlinethe imaginary line drawn down the center of the body. This divides it into right and left halves. This is in line with the navel.
  • Medialrefers to a position closer to the midline. For example, you would say: “The bridge of the nose is medial to the eyes.”
  • Lateralrefers to a position farther away from the midline. Example: The ears are lateral to the nose.
  • Bilateralon both sides.
  • Mid-axillarya line drawn perpendicular from the middle of the armpit to the ankle.
  • Anterior/Ventralfront of the body or organ.
  • Posterior/Dorsalback of the body or organ.
  • Superiormeans above (e.g., the chest is superior to the abdomen).
  • Inferiormeans below (e.g., the lips are inferior to the nose).
  • Proximalcloser to the torso (e.g., the elbow is proximal to the hand).
  • Distalaway from the torso (e.g., the wrist is distal to the shoulder).
  • Mid-clavicular lineline through the center of each clavicle.

Moving on to the second objective, which is to describe the different organ systems. These are the essential things you need to remember from each organ system:

Musculoskeletal Systemprovides structure to the body, allows movement, and protects the other systems. Built with various bones and muscles, this is system have the following components:

  • Skull – primary function is to enclose and protect the brain. It provides a structure for the face and allows movement of the head.
  • Spineconsists of 33 vertebrae stacked one upon the other to form the spinal column. It is important for movement, sensation, and other vital functions.
  • Thoracic Cage (Rib Cage)protects the lungs and heart. It holds a vital role in the expansion and contraction of the lungs.
  • Pelvic girdleis one of the most complex anatomical structures. It contains several attachment points for various large muscles groups of both the trunk and legs.
  • Limbsarms and legs; composed of many different joints and attachment points to allow precise and varied movement.
  • Muscles consist of a bundle of smaller fibers (myofibrils) anchored to a bone via a tendon and innervated by nerves—three types: voluntary, involuntary, and cardiac.

Circulatory Systemits role in the delivery of oxygen and glucose to cells and removal of waste.

  • The system consists of a pump, pipes, and the fluid they carry.
  • Heart the four-chambered pump: two upper called atria and two lower called ventricles.
  • AtriaRight Atrium: the chamber that receives unoxygenated blood returning from the body; Left atrium: the chamber that receives oxygenated blood from the lungs.
  • VentriclesRight Ventricle: the chamber that sends oxygen-poor blood to the lungs; Left Ventricle: the chamber that sends oxygen-rich blood to the body.
  • Blood Vessels smooth muscle tubes that can expand and contract. It does not only carry blood but regulates its flow to different areas of the body. Types: arteries, veins, venules, and capillaries – all have distinct functions.
  • Bloodred liquid that flows through the body of a living organism. It has many components in different cells: red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), platelets, etc.

The Nervous Systemcontrols the entire body. It involves the fibers that run across every inch of the body, which controls muscles, organs, and glands. Two divisions:

  • Central Nervous System (CNS) composed of the brain and spinal cord. Neurons make up both structures and support cells together with large blood vessels and capillaries.
  • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)extensive and covers all areas of the body. It’s composed of nerves that have numerous functions: it controls the movement, organ function and returns sensory information towards the spinal cord and brain.

Digestive System – exists to break down and absorb ingested material for energy & creation of new cells.

  • It has two divisions: hollow organs and solid organs.

Respiratory Systemits role is to bring oxygen from the air. An organism can only get oxygen through blood circulation.

  • Hollow Organs composed of the esophagus, stomach, and intestines.
  • Esophagus: a physical tube that connects the mouth to the stomach.
  • Stomach: both grinds up food and digest it with acid.
  • Intestines: absorbs nutrients (small); resorption of water and formation of feces (large).
  • Solid organs composed of the liver and pancreas.
  • Liver: has a dual purpose of producing bile – helps absorb fats in the intestines and detoxify the blood.
  • Pancreas: also has a dual role – production of enzymes that break down protein and hormones that balance blood glucose.
  • Upper Respiratory Tract – (nose & mouth) handles the initial cleaning and warming of air before transmission to the lower airways. It carries air, food & fluids to the esophagus.
  • Lower Respiratory Tracttransfers air through a branching inverted three made up of the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles until it reaches the alveoli. These organs are responsible for how blood gets oxygen.
  • Diaphragm: a sheet of muscle at the base of the lungs. It pulls air into the airways through the negative pressure in the chest.

Integumentary Systemprovides the physical barrier between the inner systems of the body and the outside environment. Three main layers:

  • Epidermis: a thick layer of dead cells. It acts as the sacrificial layer of the body.
  • Dermis: living skin layer with cells that continue to multiply and divide.
  • Subcutaneous layer: fat storage that acts as a significant insulating layer for the body.

You can explore more organ systems, but the mentioned six systems are the most common ones.

What is the main difference between anatomy and physiology?

This question goes back towards the definition of both terms wherein; anatomy is the study of the structures associated with the human body. Meanwhile, physiology is the study of the function of each system. Both offer distinct ways of studying a living organism.

Both fields have different subjects to study. Anatomy focuses on the size, shape, and location of a living organism’s body structures. In comparison, physiology focuses on the chemical, physical, and electrical processes of the organism.

Anatomy can stand alone. You can understand it through the dissection of one living organism. In contrast, physiology needs to be together to understand each organ’s function and its systems.

Although anatomy can be independent, it is still essential to learn both fields as they are necessary to medical science.

Why is anatomy so important?

It is essential for countless reasons. But for allied health providers, it is necessary as the concerns of your patients’ needs knowledge in this field.

Let’s start by discussing diagnoses. Upon diagnosing a patient for a particular disease, anatomy plays a vital role in pinpointing the specific location of the pain they feel. You can also determine through it why this abnormality is fatal.

Identification of physical symptoms or irregularities are not the only things discovered through anatomy. At a microscopic level, you can identify new diseases through the study. With the help of this identification, you can explore how to combat these illnesses.

After diagnosis, through anatomy, it is easier to help your patients understand what disease they have. A complete understanding of this field is a must to simplify complex terms for those not in the medical field. Making your patients understand can help in letting them feel at ease despite the pain they are feeling.

Remember that you need to understand the structure of a human and the corresponding functions of each system. There is an interconnection between organ systems that a disease in one system can affect the others. Without considering these connections, it can be dangerous and may lead to misdiagnosis.

The field of medicine requires three things:

  1. You must have the character to be able to support and help patients.
  2. You must have the specific technical knowledge necessary to make justified decisions.
  3. You must have the required clinical skills to use the knowledge you have learned.

Learning anatomy falls to the second condition. Thus, it is essential. It is challenging to master this field, but you can do it with perseverance and hard work.

Is studying anatomy hard?

As mentioned earlier, learning anatomy is challenging. You need to have a considerable amount of time and dedication. Perseverance, patience, and hard work are necessary because there are no shortcuts.

Expect that you need to invest 10-12 hours or even more per week of studying. This time estimation is only for study sessions you spend during breaks or outside class. Time management is vital while learning this field.

It needs a lot of memorization. This skill includes both visuals (cadavers, 3D models, charts) and the definition of terms. It would be best if you prepared techniques so you can store all information.

Critical thinking is also a component that you need to consider. With it, you’ll be able to identify a part of anatomy based on clues. This skill needs countless enhancements before you can acquire it.

Even though it is challenging, learning anatomy is not impossible. You need to develop the proper study techniques. Being equipped with all the mentioned values, skills, and practices would guarantee your learning.


Anatomy – Dictionary Definition. (n.d.). Vocabulary.Com. Retrieved August 17, 2021, from

Cena, C. (2020, May 11). | Take Online Courses. Earn College Credit. Research Schools, Degrees & Careers. Study.Com.

Helmenstine, A. M. (2019, July 3). Understand the Difference Between Anatomy and Physiology. ThoughtCo.

Introduction to A&P | MedicTests. (n.d.). Medictests. Retrieved August 16, 2021, from

Jaquith, K. (2015, February 27). 9 Study Tips To Help You Learn Human Anatomy. Universal Medical Inc. Blog.

Oltre, A. (n.d.). Anatomy Next. Anatomy. Retrieved August 16, 2021, from

Overview of Anatomy and Physiology | Boundless Anatomy and Physiology. (n.d.). Lumen. Retrieved August 16, 2021, from

Physiological – Dictionary Definition. (n.d.). Vocabulary.Com. Retrieved August 17, 2021, from,body%20(think%20of%20those%20phys.&text=That%20root%20comes%20from%20the,Ta%2Dtaa!

Reporter, G. S. (2019, June 7). University subject profile: anatomy and physiology. The Guardian.

Stanford, K., Rutland, S., Sturrock, C. J., & Rutland, C. S. (2020). The Importance of Anatomy. Frontiers for Young Minds, 8.

What Is Anatomy and Physiology? (n.d.). CliffsNotes. Retrieved August 16, 2021, from

Why is Human Anatomy and Physiology so important to your success in a health care field? (n.d.). Dept.Clcillinois.Ed. Retrieved August 16, 2021, from

Do you want to learn graphic design and earn online?

Do you want to learn graphic design and earn money? Improve your skills with Upskill now!
from UpSkill Creatives

Do you want to learn graphic design and get online clients to earn money? Upskill is here to help you achieve that goal. Getaprofessor partners with Upskill to allow people to learn new skills, improve themselves and earn online even in the midst of a global pandemic.

This coming Saturday, September 4, 2021 at 7:30pm, we will have another brand new workshop for beginners and experienced graphic designers.

We are inviting all those who want to learn new things when it comes to freelancing and graphic design.

Coach Juan will be giving an ALL-OUT experience for those who want to discover what opportunities await for those who want to enter freelancing.

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Everyone is welcome even if you have no prior background in designing.

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Get a mentor now from Upskill!

Words of Wisdom for learners and mentors

Consider it pure joy, my brothers and sisters,[a] whenever you face trials of many kinds, 3 because you know that the testing of your faith produces perseverance. 4 Let perseverance finish its work so that you may be mature and complete, not lacking anything.
from InkSights n Letters

𝙁𝙧𝙚𝙨𝙝𝙞𝙚, 𝙡𝙖𝙣𝙎𝙚𝙩, 𝙂𝙤!

First years! Let's get together as we commemorate the beginning of your journey here in the Medical Technology Society

𝓘 𝓰𝓸𝓽 𝓽𝓱𝓮𝓼𝓮 𝓯𝓻𝓮𝓼𝓱 𝓮𝔂𝓮𝓼… 🎶

First years! Let’s get together as we commemorate the beginning of your journey here in the Medical Technology Society 🧡

There’s nothing more exhilarating than officially kick-starting your medical technology student life with an orientation where we talk about all the nitty gritty information necessary to digest when enrolled in the program.

The fun does not stop there! Raffles and mini-games await! 🎲 ʙᴇᴋᴇ ɴᴇᴍᴇɴ ᴘᴀ ʀᴀꜰꜰʟᴇ ɴɢ ɴᴏ ꜱᴛʀᴇꜱꜱ 👉🏼👈🏼




Caption | Kylie Janner

Pubmat | Kenneth Tagaro | Infomedia Committee

Getaprofessor Updates!

Invited for a speaking engagement by the National ICT Confederation of the Philippines to share my experiences as a tech startup founder in the Philippines. Sharing the challenges I encountered in establishing and leading a tech startup in our country. Commercializing the intellectual property I created is not easy, but if my efforts result in more successful startups, it will create a demonstration effect that will draw more talent and capital to our beloved Dumaguete City. 😊

Do you want to build your own startup? Register now and see you on Aug.25, at 2pm.

Blessed Sunday to Everyone!

Calligraphy for Sundays. Peace I leave with you; my peace I give you. I do not give as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubles and do not be afraid.
from InkSights n Letters

How do you respond to someone who is angry?

How do you respond? When someone says a harsh word against you?
from InkSights n Letters

How do you respond when someone says a harsh statement against you? Do you respond in anger and defend yourself? Do you seek to understand rather than be understood? A gentle answer may be the key.

To respond in anger seems to be the easiest thing to do. Humans are emotional creatures. We seek to defend ourselves all the time. After all, this is how humanity has survived throughout the years. Defend yourself and your family. It is how we respond to fear and attack from perceived enemies.

But is it not wise to understand the other person? To learn why they say those things against you? To provide a listening heart even though the words may hurt. To be the bigger person who seeks to understand and give a calm answer.

The world may hurt you, but you can choose not to hurt back. It seems easy to say, but it is difficult to do. I write these words not because I can easily forgive, but I write to seek to understand my thoughts and those of others.

 I am reminded by the verse from Proverbs, “A gentle answer turns away wrath”.  As much as it is difficult to give a gentle answer when emotions are high, it is good to know that we remind ourselves of this verse that a gentle answer can be the avenue to a fruitful discussion between people.

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